Clearly this would be an absurd demand, since we apparently do this all the time in morally appropriate ways. This is not to say that to be virtuous is to be the victor in a constant and permanent war with ineradicable evil impulses or temptations. First, he makes a plethora of statements about outcomes and character traits that appear to imply an outright rejection of both forms of teleology.
Both strategies have faced textual and philosophical hurdles. Nonetheless, this derivation of the universal law formulation from the Humanity Formulation seems to require a substantive, synthetic claim, namely, that humanity is indeed absolutely valuable.
Given that, insofar as we are rational, we must will to develop capacities, it is by this very fact irrational not to do so. He has a duty to cultivate his talent, because if no one cultivated their talent, the human race would languish entirely. In particular, when we act immorally, we are either weak—willed or we are misusing our practical reason by willing badly.
Tsanoff, Ethics, pp. A holy or divine will, if it exists, though good, would not be good because it is motivated by thoughts of duty because such a will does not have natural inclinations and so necessarily fulfills moral requirements without feeling constrained to do so.
All particular moral judgments must be tested by appeal to the sovereign norm of inherent universal and eternal right. It has its proper place in human life, and it is an exceedingly important place.
And one is justified in this because rational agency can only operate by seeking to be the first cause of its actions, and these are the prescriptions, and so on, of being a first cause of action.
He argued that objective knowledge was possible because, though every person has unique sensory impressions, our minds all combined these impressions in the same way to make objective statements. We can think of judgments where the ultimate value of the goal is up for debate, but the means are universally acknowledged.