Deviations from normal physical and psychological growth and development

physical growth and development pdf

The fact that development is continuous emphasises the point that each stage of development has its foundations built upon a preceding stage and has a definite influence on the succeeding stage of development. This is particularly the case in girls, for whom the first menstrual period, or menarche, is often followed by a period of sterility.

stages of growth and development

The timing of exposure to and removal from deprivation appears to vary by the domain of later functioning examined, including attention, executive function, and stress responsivity Bos et al, ; Brett et al, in press-a ; Ghera et al, ; Gunnar et al, Pollutants Physical growth is sensitive to several pollutants, including lead, air pollution, certain organic compounds, and tobacco smoke.

For this reason, the following discussion will consider prenatal growth in terms of biological events, particularly the development of the ovum, the embryo, and the fetus.

physical development psychology quizlet

As humans are an altricial species, caregiver assistance is required for survival in infancy and childhood. Cells become specialized and organized to form the different tissues, organs, and bodily systems. By the time they reach adulthood, much of the difference is reduced or even cancelled.

Physical growth and development stages

In addition, the last decade has brought startling advances in the understanding of the genetic and molecular control of neural development. Social and Economic Status Children from poorer families are generally shorter and lighter than their peers in higher-income families. It also seems that living in a home with smoking parents is related to reduced height and weight throughout infancy and childhood. Physical growth and development affect the way individuals perceive themselves and how others perceive them. As it is sometimes said, biology does not celebrate birthdays! Developmental diseases of the nervous system, e. Gross motor activities involve the whole body or major segments. Generally speaking, however, the adult stage is characterized by its stability. Brook, G. The children have been evaluated comprehensively at 4, 6, 11, and 15 years. They do this by refining, combining, and elaborating on their fundamental movement skills to perform more specialized, often more socially stereotypical actions, such as sports, dance, and games. Within a few months of mid-fetal life, the cerebrum, which begins as a small bihemispheric organ with hardly a trace of surface indentation, evolves into a deeply sulcated structure.

Studies have demonstrated modest to moderate convergence between measures of inhibitory control and indiscriminate behavior Bruce et al, ; Gleason et al, a ; Pears et al, In addition to children in institutions, indiscriminate behavior has been identified in maltreated children in foster care Boris et al, ; Oosterman et al, ; Pears et al, ; Zeanah et al,

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Deviations from the Expectable Environment in Early Childhood and Emerging Psychopathology