The fact that development is continuous emphasises the point that each stage of development has its foundations built upon a preceding stage and has a definite influence on the succeeding stage of development. This is particularly the case in girls, for whom the first menstrual period, or menarche, is often followed by a period of sterility.
The timing of exposure to and removal from deprivation appears to vary by the domain of later functioning examined, including attention, executive function, and stress responsivity Bos et al, ; Brett et al, in press-a ; Ghera et al, ; Gunnar et al, Pollutants Physical growth is sensitive to several pollutants, including lead, air pollution, certain organic compounds, and tobacco smoke.
For this reason, the following discussion will consider prenatal growth in terms of biological events, particularly the development of the ovum, the embryo, and the fetus.
As humans are an altricial species, caregiver assistance is required for survival in infancy and childhood. Cells become specialized and organized to form the different tissues, organs, and bodily systems. By the time they reach adulthood, much of the difference is reduced or even cancelled.
Studies have demonstrated modest to moderate convergence between measures of inhibitory control and indiscriminate behavior Bruce et al, ; Gleason et al, a ; Pears et al, In addition to children in institutions, indiscriminate behavior has been identified in maltreated children in foster care Boris et al, ; Oosterman et al, ; Pears et al, ; Zeanah et al,