Political views thoughts and theories
Characteristics of political ideology
Simmering in the background, it must also be noted, are theological-political philosophies that deny any primacy to the individual or to the group in favor of the supreme status of the divine realm. Anarchists who rail against economic progress or "global capitalism" as somehow limiting their choices seek alternative ends to their political utopia, one which has much in common with the final political theory examined: environmentalism. In it, he details the role of the state in terms of political affairs i. Studies of Particular Topics 1. Ethical Foundations Political philosophy has its beginnings in ethics : in questions such as what kind of life is the good life for human beings. The influence of social groups on political outcomes[ edit ] Recently, some political scientists have been interested in many studies which aimed to analyze the relation between the behavior of social groups and the political outcomes. There is thus a distinction between political philosophy, which reflects the world outlook of successive theorists and which demands an appreciation of their historical settings, and modern political science proper, which, insofar as it can be called a science, is empirical and descriptive. Rasmussen, Douglas B.
Yet, if the rationalist is also an individualist, the paradox arises that individuals are united into the collective whole of rational beings all individuals share reasonwhereas irrationalism collapses into a plurality of individualistic epistemologies all groups are ultimately composed of subjectivists.
Conservatism still tends to resist radical change, however its goals have changed.
Secondly, socialists agree that capitalism free-market conservativism or liberalism is morally and hence politically flawed. In this sense, anarchism might be described as a form of 'ultra-democracy', with the total absence of elements such as centralism, remote representation or entrenched power bases or systems.
Lord, Carnes, and David O'Connor eds.
Thomas Jefferson : Politician and political theorist during the American Enlightenment. As ethics is also underpinned by metaphysical and epistemological theories, so too can political philosophy be related to such underlying theories: theorizing on the nature of reality and of how we know things logically relates to how we do things and how we interact with others.
As environmental crises such as global warming and depletion of fossil fuels have become more evident, environmental ideology has featured more significantly in political parties in Western nations, particularly in Australia, where the first 'green parties' emerged, and Europe, where they have experienced significant electoral successes.
Political ideology spectrum
Goodman, Lenn E. The proffered justifications often stem from a rejection of any rights for human beings. Since the cultural revolution of the 17th century in England, which spread to France and the rest of Europe, society has been considered subject to natural laws akin to the physical world. Conclusion The main political theories assume the ethical and hence political primacy of humanity — at least on this planet — and accordingly proceed to define what they consider the most appropriate institutions for human survival, development, morality and happiness. Huxley, G. Others generate more complex arguments. However, environmentalism starts on a different premise: human beings are not the center of our politics — nature is. Also of interest is the Constitution of Athens, an account of the history and workings of the Athenian democracy. Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France is the most popular of his writings where he denounced the French revolution. The language used by the opposing thinkers to describe the political primacy of their entity that is, individual or group alters throughout history depending on other competing or complementing concepts; but today the division is best characterized by the "rights of the individual" versus the "rights of the group. Conservatism still tends to resist radical change, however its goals have changed. Marxists, for example, assume that inconsistent or hypocritical bourgeois values will disappear; in their stead, any class-based morality will disappear for class distinctions will disappear but the particularities of what will guide ethical behavior is not readily explored — Marx avoided the topic, except to say that men will consider each other as men and not as working class or bourgeois.
Broadly, however, one may characterize as political all those practices and institutions that are concerned with government. The fact that this would require the demise of five billion people should be addressed: what would justify the return to the supposed Eden and what methods would be appropriate?
The classical liberal retort is who will provide those resources and to what age should people be deemed incapable of learning or striving by themselves?
How long does an institution have to exist before it gains the respect of the philosophical conservative?
Others consider political institutions to be sacred in their own right but this is hardly a tenable position: if humanity did not exist such institutions would be meaningless and hence can only gain their meaning from our existence.
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